Historie


Historien om Commissioning starter tilbage dengang, hvor latin var udbredt. Herefter har det været en tur forbi skibs- og flyindustrien, før det blev til den Commissioning vi kender.


Commissioning på dansk

Når "Commissioning" oversættes til dansk, bliver det ofte oversat til "Idriftsættelse", "Ibrugtagning" og "Første idrifttagning". Det er en smule misvisende, da idriftsættelse blot er en af mange ting, som Commissioning processen indeholder.


Ordets oprindelse

Selve ordet "Commissioning" stammer til gengæld fra latin, hvor det startede som ordet committere. Det er en sammensætning af de to latinske ord com (med, sammen) og mittere (give slip, sende afsted, kaste). De to ord sammensat udgjorde committere, som betyder: at forene, forbinde, kombinere og at samle.

Fra committere blev det til commissionem (latin) til commission (gammel fransk) og slutteligt til det engelske commission i midten af 1300 tallet. Den gang startede ordets betydning med at være:

commission (midt 1300)
authority entrusted to someone, delegated authority or power


Herefter gik der et par år, og i slutningen af 1400 tallet, blev betydningen ændret til:

commission (slut 1400)
body of persons charged with authority for the performance of certain special duties


I 1560'erne blev ordets betydning ændret igen, dog stadig med samme det samme underliggende betydning.

commission (1560'erne)
anything entrusted to anyone to perform

Ordets vej til Commissioning

Billedet nedenfor viser, hvordan ordet er blevet til:

Hvordan ordet commission blev til

Egenavn og forkortelser

Herudover er ordet mange steder taget ind som et egenavn, da vi har opkaldt vores proces efter det - altså Commissioning med stort C. Det er dog ikke alle, som ønsker at benytte det som egenavn, heriblandt Dansk Standard DS 3090.

Commissioning forkortes ofte som Cx, men jeg har ikke kunne finde oprindelsestidspunktet for dette. Cx benyttes som en direkte erstatning af Commissioning, for eksempel: Cx plan, Cx krav osv.

Metoden med at indsætte et X for at forkorte ord benyttes mange forskellige flere steder. Morsekoder er et kendt eksempel, hvor blandt andet "Transmitting" og "Receiving" bliver forkortet med "TX" og "RX", hvilket efterfølgende også benyttes i dataindustrien som forkortelser. Flyindustrien benytter det også, heriblandt for passagerer, som forkortes "PAX".


Brugen af ordet

Googles søgemaskine har indekseret et stort omfang af bøger fra 1500 tallet og til 2008. Det har derfor været muligt at udtrække data over, hvor ofte ordet commissioning er forekommet.

Du kan downloade overblikket i billedformat her: lille format eller stort format.


Fra skib til bygning

En Commissioning ceremoni er, når et skib sættes i søen. Men konceptet Commissioning stammer fra skibsindustrien, hvor det referer til test af skibets systemer, før det bliver sat i søen. Kvalitetsprocessen er en essentiel del af at bygge skibe grundet risikoen for fejl, som kan medføre personskader og tab af liv på søen.

Den forøgede risiko ved skibe er også og finde i flyindustrien, hvor Commissioning også har været benyttet i mange år. Fælles for både skibe og fly er, at deres kvalitetsstyringsproces har rødder i "Quality programs" fra 1970'erne, som er den direkte udløber til "Total Quality Management programs" fra 1980'erne.

Commissioning begyndte at blive implementeret på byggerier i løbet af 1970-80'erne, som en energibesparende foranstaltning og fik stor fart i takt med energikrisen i 1970'erne. I løbet af 1980'erne og 1990'erne blev bygnings Commissioning mere almindelig i USA - især i offentlige projekter.

I 1984 blev "ASHRAE HVAC Commissioning Guideline Committee" opstartet. Det var også samme år, at University of Wisconsin-Madison startede med at udbyde Commissioning kurser. I 1988 udgav ASHRAE deres første "HVAC Commissioning Guideline" og i de følgende år, blev der udgivet flere Commissioning vejledninger.

I starten fokuserede Commissioning kun på de mekaniske installationer, men dette har siden ændret sig siden. Byggerier er blevet meget mere komplekse og kravene til dem mere omfangsrige. Den teknologiske udvikling har ligeledes medført, at de mange nye tekniske installationer kan interagere på kryds og tværs. Commissioning favner nu alle aspekter af byggeriet: de mekaniske, elektrotekniske anlæg og bygningens klimaskærm.

Commissioning er i dag blevet en international anerkendt proces, som bruges på nybyggeri såvel som eksisterende byggerier.


Kronologisk oplistning

Nedenstående kronologiske oplistning indeholder større milepæle for Commissioning fra hele verdenen. Størstedelen af de udenlandske milepæle stammer fra BCxA hjemmeside.

2018
  • ASHRAE opdaterer Standard 202 og udgiver den i version 2018
  • FRI's Ydelsesbeskrivelse for Byggeri og Planlægning revideres til YBL18
  • ABR89 revideres til ABR18
  • AB92 revideres til AB18
  • ABT93 revideres til ABT18
  • COPILOT Building Commissioning Solutions har allieret sig med REHVA om at udvikle en online cradle-to-grave Commissioning løsning.

2017
  • Cx Manager: Danmarks første Commissioning software lanceres
  • NCBC: 25th Anniversary of NCBC to be hosted by BCxA, October 2017, Salt Lake City, Utah

2016
  • Cx Wiki: Dansk Wikipedia om Commissioning lanceres
  • 12. REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2016 - Commissioning Task Force
  • NCBC: Hosted by BCxA, May 2016, Indian Wells, California

2015
  • Cx ERFA: Det danske Cx ERFA netværk opstartes
  • NCBC: Hosted by BCxA, May 2015, St. Louis, Missouri

2014
  • DS3090: Dansk Standard DS 3090 udgives
  • NCBC: Hosted by BCxA, May 2014, Harford Connecticut

2013
  • ASHRAE opdaterer Guideline 0 og udgiver den i version 2013
  • ASHRAE publicerer Standard 202: Commissioning Process for Building and Systems
  • Værdiskabende Byggeproces (Værdibyg) udgiver vejledning i Commissioning
  • NCBC: Hosted by BCxA, May 2013, Denver, Colorado

2012
  • NIBS opdaterer Guideline 3 og udgiver den i version 2012
  • BCxA publishes position paper on Cx Qualifications and Certifications
  • BCxA elects Executive Director
  • BCxA publishes position paper on Cx Qualifications and Certifications
  • ICC Cx Guideline published in July 2012
  • 20th NCBC:

2011
2010
  • Energy Design Resources publicerer Building Commissioning Guideline
  • PECI receives $749K Stimulus Grant to fund the development of curriculum to train engineers, building auditors and operators in building science and commissioning.
  • 12th Annual Benner Award presented to Carl Lundstrom, PE, CCP
  • 18th NCBC: Hosted by ComEd

2009
  • Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Energy Division publicerer Building Commissioning Guideline
  • USGBC publishes new LEED 2009 commissioning guidelines and Credential Maintenance for LEED APs
  • State of Utah DFCM mandates all new buildings be built to LEED Silver and with the Enhanced Commissioning credits and Building Envelope commissioning as mandatory
  • 11th Annual Benner Awards presented to Don Frey
  • 17th NCBC: Hosted by BetterBricks

2008
  • BCxA publicerer Best practice for Existing Construction
  • CCC expands RCx Toolkit— Spreadsheet Tools
  • USGBC restructures LEED®-EB as LEED® for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance, allowing up to 4-points for RCx and 2-points for ongoing commissioning
  • ComEd launches large-scale commercial building RCx and retrofit initiative
  • 10th Annual Benner Awards presented to Michael English and CCC
  • 16th NCBC: Hosted by Southern California Edison

2007
  • North Carolina includes commissioning in a bill to increase energy efficiency in state buildings
  • Massachusetts’ LEED® -based energy efficiency standards for state buildings require third-party commissioning for projects greater than 20,000 square feet
  • CCC publishes RCx Toolkit—Templates and Sample Documents
  • PECI develops A Retrocommissioning Guide for Owners with funding from the EPA ENERGY STAR® Program
  • BCxA membership increases more than 30% over 2006 membership
  • 9th Annual Benner Awards presented to Dan Turner and BCxA
  • 15th NCBC: Hosted by ComEd and Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation

2006
  • California Commissioning Collaborative publicerer Best practice for New Construction
  • California Commissioning Collaborative publicerer Best practice for Existing Construction
  • NIBS publicerer Guideline 3-2006 Building Enclosure Commissioning Process
  • California utilities roll out large-scale RCx programs
  • California DGS publishes In-House Commissioning Toolkit for Small Buildings
  • PIER publishes Specifications Guide for Performance Monitoring Systems
  • PIER publishes online Functional Testing and Design Guides
  • ASHRAE announces plans for a certification program for Cx and integrated building design
  • ASHRAE Sustainability Roadmap sets organization-wide agenda to lead the advancement of sustainable building design and operations
  • 8th Annual Benner Awards presented to Mary Ann Piette and USGBC’s LEED® Green Building Rating System™
  • 14th NCBC: Hosted by Pacific Gas & Electric Company

2005
  • California’s Energy Efficiency Standards include acceptance testing requirements for non-residential new construction
  • ASHRAE publishes Guideline 0-2005: The Commissioning Process
  • AABC Commissioning Group (ACG) holds 1st Annual Meeting
  • ASHRAE begins development of Guideline 1.2: The Commissioning Process for Existing HVAC&R Systems
  • Connecticut Light and Power Company initiates RCx pilot program
  • NEMI publishes a national study of market potential for new building commissioning
  • 7th Annual Benner Award presented to Paul Tseng and NYSERDA
  • 13th NCBC: Hosted by NYSERDA

2004
  • CCC incorporates as a non-profit organization
  • MBCx Program launched by UC/CSU/IOU Partnership
  • California Governor’s Executive Order S-20-04 includes Cx
  • BCxA launches certification program
  • LBNL releases The Cost-Effectiveness of Commissioning, a national study of commissioning costs and benefits
  • USGBC introduces LEED®-EB and includes a prerequisite for retrocommissioning
  • 6th Annual Benner Award presented to Chad Dorgan
  • 12th NCBC: Hosted by Emory University

2003
  • SDG&E offers RCx program
  • PG&E publishes Commissioning Test Protocol Library
  • CCC develops online library of Cx-related research, articles, brochures and white papers
  • 5th Annual Benner Award presented to ASHRAE
  • 11th NCBC: Hosted by Southern California Edison

2002
  • PIER Program funds development of Functional Testing Guide
  • AABC publishes the AABC Commissioning Guideline
  • Energy Design Resources publishes online energy design tools and resources
  • AABC launches Cx certification program
  • NYSERDA publishes Cx guideline
  • FEMP publishes Continuous Commissioning Guidebook for Federal Managers
  • 4th Annual Benner Awards presented to Rick Casault and Emory University
  • 10th NCBC: Hosted by ComEd

2001
  • CERL produces Commissionpedia CD-ROM
  • Massachusetts code incorporates aspects of Cx
  • First International Conference on Enhanced Building Operation held in Austin, TX
  • CEC considers incorporating performance verification into California Energy Code
  • USGBC begins work on Existing Building Guideline to include Cx
  • SDG&E funds RCx pilot study
  • PIER project investigates persistence of Cx
  • Systems commissioning is included in Washington State Energy Code
  • State of Hawaii Energy Code includes requirements for systems commissioning
  • 3rd Annual Benner Award presented to Karl Stum
  • 9th NCBC: Hosted by GPU Energy

2000
  • PG&E publishes California Commissioning Market Characterizations Study
  • CCC established as an ad-hoc group to promote Cx in California
  • PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program includes integrated Cx diagnostics
  • PG&E begins to incorporate Cx into Savings by Design Program
  • NYSERDA funds Cx market transformation program
  • ARTI launches research into automated Cx activities
  • PG&E pilots program for energy efficiency upgrades and RCx of long-term care facilities
  • BCxA develops technical training
  • ASERTTI develops technical training
  • GPU Energy holds Cx workshops
  • Xcel Energy launches recommissioning program for customers in Colorado and Minnesota
  • 2nd Annual Benner Award presented to Carl N. Lawson
  • 8th NCBC: Hosted by Sprint World Headquarters Cx Team

1999
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory publishes Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings
  • State of Tennessee begins New Construction Commissioning Initiative
  • U.S. GSA conducts a Cx demonstration at its Advanced Workplace Lab
  • LBNL hosts diagnostician workshop
  • SMUD offers RCx program
  • ASERTTI Cx training curriculum is used in seven state workshops
  • State of Washington adopts Seattle Cx code requirements
  • ComEd launches Maintenance Operations and Repairs Program (MORES) which includes RCx, and begins offering Cx as one of its Advisory Services
  • 1st Annual Benner Award presented to Charles Dorgan
  • 7th NCBC: Hosted by Portland General Electric

1998
  • U.S. DOE Sponsors National Strategy for Building Commissioning
  • BCxA incorporated as a not-for-profit trade association
  • USGBC LEED® criteria includes Cx
  • Energy Star® Benchmarking Tool and Building Label create new opportunities for Cx
  • Washington State Board of Education recommends matching funds for Cx of K-12 schools
  • U.S. DOE /FEMP proposes Cx to be art of federal building renovations
  • U.S. GSA announces Comprehensive Building Commissioning Program
  • U.S. DOE Rebuild America publishes Cx guide
  • MasterSpec begins to integrate Cx specifications
  • NEEA funds Commissioning Public buildings Program
  • Cx workshop at AIA National Convention
  • Seattle Energy Code incorporates Cx for HVAC and lighting controls
  • ACEEE/CEE conduct existing building Cx workshop
  • NIBS conducts workshop on whole building Cx
  • U.S. GSA Building Commissioning Guide becomes Interagency Guide for Federal Buildings
  • Cx session at ASHRAE Winter Meeting draws more than 300 attendees
  • Portland General Electric offers Retrofit Commissioning Program
  • Public Works Canada revises and expands its Project Commissioning Manual to define basic and enhanced Cx for various projects types
  • U.S. DOE produces a film on Cx with Sandia National Labs and holds a simulcast workshop for DOE sites
  • 6th NCBC: Hosted by Florida Design Initiative

1997
  • U.S. DOE /FEMP publishes Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications
  • Sprint commissions World Headquarters in Kansas
  • Sandia National Laboratories issues Cx specification
  • E Source Tech updates Commissioning Existing Buildings
  • Cx articles begin to be published in trade press on a regular basis
  • NEEA conducts Commissioning Baseline and Market Research Study
  • Oregon Office of Energy’s Commissioning Toolkit becomes available online
  • Federal RCx demonstration projects are conducted in the Northwest
  • AIA sponsors Cx workshop at Client Connection Conference
  • 5th NCBC: Hosted by Southern California Edison

1996
  • ASHRAE publishes Guideline 1-1996: The HVAC Commissioning Process
  • U.S. GSA & FEMP fund development of Model Commissioning Guideline and Specification
  • EPRI conducts market study of firms providing Cx services
  • International Measurement & Verification Protocols recommends Cx in all projects (NREL)
  • U.S. DOE /FEMP conducts Cx workshop for federal agency project managers
  • NW Commissioning Collaborative holds 2nd conference and publishes provider directory
  • U.S. GSA & FEMP conduct existing building demonstration in Seattle, WA
  • State of Tennessee begins existing building Cx program for state buildings
  • 4th NCBC: Hosted by Florida Design Initiative

1995
  • ENERGY STAR® Building Partnership Program includes Cx
  • AIA magazine, Architectural Record publishes article on Cx
  • U.S. EPA & DOE conduct Cx demonstrations of five existing buildings
  • U.S. GSA publishes Building Commissioning Guide, Version 1
  • U.S. GSA & Facility Operations Divisions initiates Cx program
  • Detroit Edison one-day Cx conference draws more than 300 attendees
  • NW Commissioning Collaborative sponsors regional conference State of Washington requires Cx
  • APPA publishes Cx manual and provides training
  • 3rd NCBC: Hosted by Energy Center of Wisconsin

1994
  • LADWP launches Cx program
  • Public Works Canada publishes Project Commissioning Manual
  • Executive Order 12902 requires a Cx program for federal agencies
  • Florida Design Initiative introduces eDesign Online to compliment Florida Department of Management Services Cx program
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers develops HVAC Commissioning Procedures
  • ASHRAE Cx series offered via Professional Development Seminars
  • ACEEE Summer Study devotes a full panel of presentations to Cx and O&M
  • LBNL focus on building performance assurance through metrics, Cx and operations
  • SMUD offers incentives to owners who develop Cx plans
  • SCE initiates the Cx Research Study Demonstration
  • 2nd NCBC: Hosted by Florida Design Initiative

1993
  • Pacific Energy Center offers its first course on Cx
  • NEBB develops Cx provider certification program
  • National Grid (formerly NEES) offers a Cx guide to commercial customers
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers develops Cx guide specification
  • University of Washington begins to require Cx and develops Cx guide specification
  • 1st NCBC: Hosted by SMUD

1992
  • BPA publishes Building Commissioning Guidelines, Second Edition
  • BPA and PECI convene Cx Roundtables
  • U.S. GSA develops HVAC Functional Inspection & Testing Guide

1991
  • Electric utilities begin to require Cx on energy installations
  • BPA tests Commissioning Guideline on Energy Edge building in Portland, OR

1989
  • ASHRAE national convention includes Cx presentation
  • Montgomery County, Maryland institutes Cx program
  • University of Michigan establishes facilities evaluation and Cx group
  • First edition of BPA ‘s Building Commissioning Guidelines published

1988
  • Texas LoanStar Program applies monitoring and existing building Cx
  • ASHRAE publishes HVAC Commissioning Guideline

1984
1981
  • Disney includes Cx in the design, construction and start-up of Expo Center

1977
  • Public Works Canada begins to use Cx in its project delivery system